The Lake Eyre Basin is considered one of the world's last unregulated wild river systems.
The vegetation of the Basin reflects the patterns of arid and semi-arid regions that rely on variable water flows. As a consequence the Basin is an area of high conservation significance that supports wetlands such as the Ramsar listed Coongie lakes, grasslands (Astrebla Downs National Park) and deserts (such as the Simpson Desert National Park).
Along with these areas there are many rare and endangered species of plants and animals such as the Greater Bilby, the Kowari and Waddi Waddi trees (Acacia peuce). Mound springs, wetland areas of natural water seepage from the Great Artesian Basin, also support many rare and highly restricted endemic species
Currently, there are 37 parks and reserves within the Lake Eyre Basin covering about 10.6% of the Basin by area.